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Throughout history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. Coal has many important uses worldwide.

The most significant uses of coal are in

  • Electricity generation
  • Steel production
  • Cement manufacturing
  • Liquid fuel
  • Other important users of coal include alumina refineries, paper manufacturers, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries
  • Several chemical products can be produced from the by-products of coal
  • Refined coal tar is used in the manufacture of chemicals, such as creosote oil, naphthalene, phenol, and benzene
  • Thousands of different products have coal or coal by-products as components: soap, aspirins, solvents, dyes, plastics and fibres, such as rayon and nylon
  • Activated carbon, Carbon fibre & Silicon metal


Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.

Historically, manganese is named for various black minerals (such as pyrolusite) from the same region of Magnesia in Greece which gave names to similar-sounding magnesium, Mg, and magnetite, an ore of the element iron, Fe. Significant users of manganese are the chlorine industry for bleach manufacture, the steel industry, other metallurgical applications, other uses in the chemical industry

The most significant uses of Manganese are in

  • Manganese phosphating is used for rust and corrosion prevention on steel
  • Ionized manganese is used industrially as pigments of various colors, which depend on the oxidation state of the ions
  • The permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers
  • Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode (electron acceptor) material in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries
  • Manganese enzymes are particularly essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals in organisms
  • It also functions in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthetic plants
  • Manganese is an important element for human health, essential for development, metabolism, and the antioxidant system